John of Lancaster, First Duke of Bedford

john of lancasterJohn of Lancaster,the man with the pudding basin haircut and rather sumptuous gown on his knees in prayer, was the third surviving son of King Henry IV and his first wife Mary Bohun. He was born in 1389.  His mother died when he was just five.

He is better known in history as the First Duke of Bedford. And he is famous, or perhaps infamous, for having Joan of Arc burnt at the stake for witchcraft.  As a mere girl she shouldn’t have been wearing trousers and she certainly shouldn’t have been leading French armies that thrashed English armies.

John’s eldest brother was Henry of Monmouth who went on to become King Henry V after a dissolute youth causing his father Henry IV despair (refer to Shakespeare Henry IV Part One and Part Two for a full litany of drinking, gambling and womanising along with princely reformation).  In any event Henry of Monmouth shook boorish habits from him as soon as he became king and went off to do what medieval English nobility expected of their monarchs – he went to war with someone, gained victory and land.

Henry IV’s second son was called Thomas but he was killed in 1421 at the Battle of Bauge in France. John was the third son and he was followed by Humphrey.  Much of the period of Henry VI’s minority is filled with the political machinations of John and Humphrey who was created Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke. Each of the brothers wanted more power than the other. Henry V had relied upon John when he was away fighting to rule in his absence.  He took the reigns of power for his brother three times in total.  However it fell to John to continue the English campaign in France despite the fact that he had been named Regent.  This left Humphrey at home.  He became the Lord Protector during John’s long absences in France.

Not that this stopped Humphrey from dabbling in politics in an attempt to destabilize John’s alliances with other European magnates. There was also the small matter of Humphrey antagonizing the next most important man in the kingdom during Henry VI’s minority – Henry Beaufort who was the Bishop of Lincoln, a key figure on the regency council and the half-uncle of Henry IV’s children. (Henry IV’s parents were John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster while Henry Beaufort’s parents were John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford).

 

John’s time in France had been successful – the French might not have been his greatest admirers given his severe administration techniques- until about 1427 at which point a quiet country girl with a dodgy hair cut, a large sword and angels telling her what to do rather rained on his parade. Her name was Joan of Arc.  He was forced to raise the siege of Orleans in 1429 on account of the peasant girl. Joan’s army took the Loire Valley and defeated the English after which she had King Charles VII of France crowned at Rheims which was against the treaty that the French had agreed to after Agincourt which saw King Henry V marry Katherine of Valois.  The French felt there was a world of difference between a mature victorious king and a baby boy – they perhaps had a point given the chaos that often resulted in England when a child was on the throne.

In any event it didn’t do Joan much good.  She was burned for witchcraft in 1431 – the French king who owed her his crown didn’t lift a finger to help her.  John had his young nephew crowned King of France in Paris so that for a little while at least there were technically two kings of France at the same time, though it rather depended where you were as to which one you recognised in public.

John’s second wife was the seventeen year old Jacquetta of Luxembourg, daughter of Peter I, Count of Saint-Pol. She caused a scandal after John’s death by marrying a mere knight called Richard Woodville.  She went on to have sixteen children and the knight became the first Earl Rivers  for his services to Henry VI and his queen Margaret of Anjou.  So when the Yorkists looked down their nose at Elizabeth Woodville, Jacquetta’s daughter and King Edward IV’s wife, they were forgetting that she was the grand-daughter of a Count and that her mother had once been at the heart of the royal court – albeit a Lancastrian one.

John, as well as being a soldier and a politician, was also a scholar. He founded the University of Caen and had a collection of important religious manuscripts, many of which survive today including The Bedford Hours which is held by the British Library. John’s first wife Anne of Burgundy gave the book to young Henry VI for Christmas in 1430 (I wonder how the grandchildren would react to a beautifully hand painted devotional text rather than the usual jigsaws, board games and selected Disney dvds).

John’s died at Rouen in 1435 during negations with the Burgundians who were breaking their alliance with the English to make a separate peace with the French.  His demise further weakened the stability of the English court where opposing and increasingly vociferous factions now had no one sufficiently intimidating to hold them in check.  The Plantagenet family were moving ever closer to implosion.

 

 

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Filed under Fifteenth Century, Kings of England, The Plantagenets, Wars of the Roses

3 responses to “John of Lancaster, First Duke of Bedford

  1. Joan of Arc was heavily supported by Yolande of Aragon and Arthur of Brittany, neither of whom receives the credit they deserve.

    Yolande of Aragon (11 August 1384 – 14 November 1442) was Queen of Aragon and Naples, Duchess of Anjou and Countess of Provence. Born in the Zaragoza in Spain, she was a much sought after heiress and her daughter Marie was Queen to King Charles VII “the Victorious” of France, whom Yolande had protected from the Burgundians and his own mother, Queen Isabeau.

    Yolande’s grandson became Louis VII of France and her grand-daughter was Margaret of Anjou, Queen Consort of Henry VI of England whose mother Catherine of Valois was Charles’s sister. Yolande taught Margaret etiquette, literature and accounting: had she married a sane king, Margaret would have been a great asset to England.

    Although Queen Isabeau agreed to cede the throne of France to Henry VI, Yolande, perceiving the threat posed to Anjou by the growing power of Burgundy, took the dissenting French court and the young Charles to the safety of Provence.

    Yolande was a strong early supporter of Joan of Arc, arranged Arthur’s appointment as Constable of France, and deployed a female spy ring in Lorraine, Burgundy, Brittany and Charles’s court.

    Yolande retired to Saumur in Anjou, the site of a famous shrine to the Breton saint Aubin. (Incidentally, Coco Chanel was born in Saumur.)

    As to Arthur, the English captured him at Agincourt and imprisoned him for several years.

    After his release, Arthur persuaded his brother Duke John of Brittany to sign a peace treaty with England, but when the English denied Arthur his patrimony, the Earldom of Richmond, he reverted to the French cause and proceeded to undermine the English war strategy by arranging the Treaty of Arras whereby Burgundy changed sides.

    Arthur was with Joan at Patay, and after her death he did the English even more damage than she had, driving the English out of Normandy.

  2. Jean de Brosse, Marshal of France, deserves honourable mention in any accounts of Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years’ War. When the French King was unable to raise an army, Jean spent his wealth to raise one for him. When Joan of Arc was captured by the English, Jean sold all his family silver to raise another army and seized the town where Joan was held. Unfortunately, John of Lancaster had moved her to Rouen where he executed her.

    In June 1433, Jean died penniless and in debt. Only loud protests caused the ungrateful Charles VII to give Jean a decent burial instead of a pauper’s grave.

    The Bretons were so moved by the impoverished state of Jean’s son Jean II that Nicole de Châtillon-Blois married him on 18 June 1437, bringing a large dowry that was vastly supplemented when she inherited the fabulously wealthy County of Penthievre in Brittany.

  3. Jacquetta of Luxembourg was well-educated and so loved books that the Duke of Bedford bequeathed her his library.

    Her 4th child and second son, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Lord Rivers, financed and edited Caxton’s printing of Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales”. Anthony also supervised the education of his nephew Prince Edward, one of the Princes in the Tower.

    Elizabeth Woodville suggested amendments to one of Anthony’s books and may have also been a patron of Caxton’s.

    On 28 July 1488, Jacquetta’s 12th child and 6th son, Sir Edward Woodville, Lord Scales, led the vanguard of the Breton army of Duke Francis II at the disastrous Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier against a French army equipped with massed cannons. Refusing to surrender to be ransomed, Edward was killed with his men. In 1988, Breton nationalists erected a statue in his honour on the site.

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