Lenham a Medieval monastic Manor

St Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury

In AD 804 Cenulf, or Coenwulf, of Mercia together with Cudred of Kent gave the abbey of St Augustine’s in Canterbury the manor of Lenham in Kent. There’s a bit of a back story in that Cenulf as the overhang had a bit of a problem painting overall sovereignty of Mercia in Kent and at one point had tried to move the chief English see from Canterbury to London. He gave up on the idea in 798 when he installed Curdred as King of Kent. Cudred was his brother.

The two of them gave 20 plough lands, 12 denns (wood) of acorns and 40 tenements to St Augustines. Or put another way they became patrons of the abbey. A further 5 plough lands were added at a later date when the monks extended the manor of Lenham.

The Domesday book reports:

In Haibornehundred, the abbot (of St. Augustine) himself holds Lenham, which was taxed at five shillings and an half. The arable land is eighteen carucates. In demesne there are two carucates, and forty villeins, with seven borderers, having sixteen carucates. There is one servant, and two mills of six shillings and eight pence, and eight acres of meadow, and wood for forty bogs.

In the time of king Edward the Confessor, it was worth twenty-eight pounds, and afterwards sixteen pounds, now twenty-eight pounds. Of this manor Robert Latin holds one yoke, which is worth five shillings.

To make clear the process by which the monks of St Augustine’s held on to the manor William the Conqueror (but not in Kent because they came to terms) held all the land but he returned the land which the monks of St Augustine’s had previously held but now they received the land in return to service to him- which to be clear meant that for every knight’s fee of land they held they were required to put one knight in the field if William so required.

The monks of St Augustine’s continued to to benefit from Plantagenet patronage throughout the medieval period.

Once the abbey was dissolved, the land effectively went into the administration of the Court of Augmentations. In this case, Lenham became Crown estate until Elizabeth I gave it to her very capable chief minister William Cecil who alienated it to Thomas Wilford.

William Cecil (National Portrait Gallery)

Alienation means that the land was sold or transferred. Most land in alienable but it demonstrates that the ownership of the land has moved out from the feudal system. In a feudal system land is transferred by sub-infeudination i.e. the monarch would still be the tenant in chief and William Cecil would have been Elizabeth’s vassal. Thomas Wilford would have been a sub tenant and a vassal of William Cecil. This was not the case.

Wilford’s grandson passed the land to Sir Thomas Brown, Lord Montagu whose wife was a FitzAlan. We can see that once the land passed out of Crown ownership that the manor of Lenham transferred through inheritance, marriage or sale. The Montagu family alienated the manor to the Hamilton family – specifically the widow of Sir George Hamilton. Elizabeth Hamilton’s maiden name was Colepepper or Culpepper. I am currently not going to chase down the links with the Thomas Culpepper who was executed in 1541. Suffice it to say that the Culpeppers were an important part of Kent’s gentry.

Edward Hasted, ‘Parishes: Lenham’, in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 5 (Canterbury, 1798), pp. 415-445. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol5/pp415-445 [accessed 29 November 2020].



Martinmas, geese and weather prediction

St Martin – aged 18 cutting his cloak in half to provide warmth for a beggar.

St. Martin’s Day falls on the 11th of November. Martinmas, or Martlemas, celebrates the feast of St. Martin of Tours. It was on this date that the agricultural work of the year came to it’s fruition. Pigs and cattle that could not be overwintered were slaughtered. Geese were sent to market. The sowing of autumn wheat was now complete. New wine could be tasted. Farm labours moved on and sought new work at fairs.

It is about this time of the year that the so-called “Goose fairs” are held before being known as goose fairs many were called Martinmas Fairs. Lenton Priory in Nottinghamshire was granted the right to hold a fair at this time of the year by Henry II.

The wine of St Martin after Breugal the Elder

It was also supposed to heal the preparations for Christmas – which did not involve as many festive meals as possible and a mad dash to the shops. It was supposed to be a period of fasting that lasted 40 days. It was called “Quadragesima Sancti Martini“,

Over time that changed and then during the seventeenth century was got rid of by the Commonwealth. In all fairness they had a point. The Anglo-Saxons called November “Blot Monath” Bede explained that it was so called because the cattle that could not be kept over winter were slaughtered in part of a sacrifice to the gods.

St Martin’s symbol was a goose – the former Roman soldier didn’t want to be a bishop so he hid in a goose shed but their honking gave him away. It became part of the feasts traditions to eat a goose on his feast day. In 1455, the physician, Johannes Hartlieb, wrote –

‘When the goose has been eaten on St Martin’s Day the oldest and wisest keeps the breast-bone and, allowing it to dry until the morning, examines it all around, in front, behind and in the middle. Thereby they divine whether the winter will be severe or mild, dry or wet, and are so confident in their prediction that they will wager their goods and chattels on its accuracy.’

According to weather folklore, if you haven’t got a handy goose wishbone, the weather on Christmas day will be the opposite of what it is at martinmas – so if muddy on the 11th November it will be icy on December 25th and vice versa.

words, words, words – monastic words

It’s been a few weeks so hopefully you’ll have a nice long list of monastic terms. This isn’t exhaustive and I may add to it over time but how did you do?

abbey – larger monastic house indicating independence. The head the house was an abbot (male) or an abbess (female). Abbot comes from the Latin word abba meaning father. In the Benedictine order the abbot’s rule over his house is absolute.

advowson – the right to appoint to an ecclesiastical job i.e. the vicar.

alien priories – monastic houses which were subsidiary or dependent i.e a daughter house of a continental monastery. This houses were gradually suppressed particularly during the reign of Edward III.

almoner – monk or nun responsible for charitable giving. In larger houses there may have been a specific building that people could come to for alms and food called an almonry. In some foundations you might also find an almshouse where the poor and elderly could find shelter.

anchorites, anchoresses and hermits – monks and nuns who withdrew from the world to live alone. They lived in very enclosed accommodation away from the rest of the world. Some of them were sealed into their homes.

Austin Canons -the so-called “black canons- because of their destinctive habits. https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/15/monastic-orders-part-2-canons/

The rule of St Benedict All monks and nuns, no matter what their order, follow the rule of St Benedict, which governs their day and their devotions.

Benedictines an order of monks and nuns . https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/14/medieval-monastic-orders-part-i/

Benefactors patrons contributing to the building and extension of monastic foundations usually in return for prayers and as a method of shortening a stay in purgatory.

Boarders wealthy patrons had a tendency to send their old servants or extended family members to live in monastic houses. These people would not take holy orders, they were living in the monastic house as a retirement home.

Brewhouse – all ale was home-brewed.

Brigettines – often double communities – i.e. monks on one side and nuns on the other- there was only one house in England, of nuns only, at Syon they had a reputation for learning and zealousness.

Bursar- official role looking after the money.

Canonical hours – The seven specific services of the day – Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, Compline, Mattins and Lauds.

Carrells – study cubicles often found in the cloister.

Carthusian – monastic order https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/14/medieval-monastic-orders-part-i/ Their monastic foundations are often referred to as charterhouses.

Cell – this could either be the individual living space of a monk such as the Carthusian cells that can be seen at Mount Grace or it can also describe a very small house of four or fewer monastics which is entirely dependent on it’s mother house. A cell of this kind may be placed to grow a daughter house or to keep oversight of a property or as a location for punishment.

Cellarer – Second in charge, responsible for food and drink and fuel. The domain of the cellarer was the cellar or cellarium which simply means storehouse. In most monasteries this is a very large space, sometimes vaulted, in the west wing of a monastic foundation. It would be on this side of the abbey that you would find all the administration for running the abbey.

Chantry – A chapel or altar given by a donor in expectation that the monks and nuns would say masses for the donor’s soul after his or her death.

Chapter – the morning briefing that took place every day in monastic houses where the work of the day would be allocated, punishments given, notices read and the rules of St Benedict read – one each day. This all took place in the chapter house. https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/08/04/chapter-houses/

Cisterican – monastic order, the so-called “white monks” https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/14/medieval-monastic-orders-part-i/

Cloister – the enclosed area with a walk all the way round its perimeter at the heart of a monastic house.

Cluniac – monastic order. In total there were 32 cluniac houses in England. They were alien priories because they were all daughter houses to the mother house at Cluny.

Compline The last of the canonical hours laid out by the Rule of Benedict. The canonical hours are also referred to as Divine Office.

Conduit Water supply, either a spring (as at Mount Grace) or a large raised tank in the conduit house.

Corrodian – lay person who paid the monastic house a sum of capital in order to live in the monastic house, all inclusive, until their death.

Cowl – A long cloak with an attached hood.

Crypt – chamber below floor level – in a church contains graves or holy relics.

Daughter house – As monastic houses received endowments they wanted to expand the number of houses so they would send a group of monks or nuns to another part of the country to develop a house. The original house was the mother house, the dependent house the daughter house and over the passage of time there were even grand daughter houses.

Day room – place where monks and nuns went during their times of recreation.

Day Stair – the way that the monastic inhabitants got from their dormitories to the cloister. Lay brothers and sisters had their own wings that mirrored those of the monks and nuns.

Dorter or dormitory – sleeping quarters

Double orders – foundations which included both men and women in their monastic houses. The only time the two groups came together was during worship.

Drying Room – most associated with Cistercians who provided a room for the lay brothers to dry out after a day working.

Foundation – 12 monastics plus their superior were required to found a monastic house. They would also require the funds to survive and to build a monastic house. This was provided by the founder.

Frater or refectory – dining room.

Friars – rather than living in enclosed houses this group of religious orders travelled around the country begging and preaching. https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/16/monastic-orders-part-3-friars/

Grange– a manor or farm that sent all its proceeds to the monastic house that owned it and whose organisation was dependent on the monastic house for instructions as to what to do.

Guest-house hospitality was an underpinning requirement of the Rule of Benedict.

Habit – religious attire

Hours – canonical hours

Infirmarer -responsible for the preparation of medicines and tonics as well as the care of patients in the infirmary. Infirmaries are also called farmeries.

Lady Chapel – chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary

Lay brother and lay sister – monastic servants who said some divine offices but who had permission to say the rest of the offices where they worked. Their accommodation mirrored that of the “choir” monks and nuns but in a separate wing – usually the western range associated with the practical administration of the monastic house. Lay brothers are also sometimes described as conversi.

Laver/lavabo – washing trough

Library– does what it says on the tin.

Mendicant – monastics who beg for their livings.

Military orders https://thehistoryjar.com/2015/06/17/monastic-orders-part-4-the-military-orders/

Misericord – perch to rest upon during long religious services. Found in the choir stalls. The choir or quire is the part of the church between the nave and presbytery where the monks and nuns would have their services.

Night Stair – access from the dorter to the church for night offices – mattins and lauds – these two services are sometimes called the Nocturns. Hexham has a very fine example.

Novice Master– monastic responsible for the care, tuition and discipline of novices who had not yet taken their final vows. Novices served a probationary period before taking their vows.

Oblate – child given by its parents to religious life.

Officers – also called Obedientiaries– monastics who held offices for the running of the monastery; either its spiritual life or its working life e.g. cellarer.

Parlour – room where monks and nuns could meet and speak.

Pittance – a food treat given in addition to standard monastic rations usually to celebrate a liturgical feast day.

Porter – door keeper.

Precinct – area around the abbey belonging to the abbey. Usually enclosed by a wall.

Prior – second in command to the abbot in Benedictine houses; where the monastic foundation was a daughter house the prior was the person responsible for the house reporting back to the abbot in the mother house. Some orders did not have abbots, so the prior was the superior.

Priory – smaller than an abbey usually a daughter house. All Austin Canons lived in priories, so it also depends on the order who lived there!

Sacristry – room for storing sacred vessels cared for by the sacrist.

Warming-house – room with a fire where monastics could warm themselves.

dies Aegyptiaci – Egyptian Days – calamitous dates for the diary

Calendar pages for November, from the Hours of Joanna of Castile, Netherlands (Bruges), between 1496 and 1506, Additional 18852, ff. 11v-12 https://www.bl.uk/medieval-english-french-manuscripts/articles/medieval-calendars

My head is full of bees and they’re quite happy buzzing around. As a result of the Zoom session which involved an understanding of medieval calendars I have a new bee buzzing gently at the back of my skull! Medieval calendars.

Egyptian Days, of which there were 24 each year, were the days that medieval calendar users believed to have been identified by ancient Egyptian astrologers as unlucky for new projects, battles, setting off on journeys, business deals and also for blood letting amongst other things. Apparently no self-respecting Anglo-Saxon would have eaten a goose on an Egyptian Day. The other way of describing them was as “evil days” which translated from Latin gives us the word “dismal.” And I’m very sorry if your birthday happens to fall on one of the days listed below. It was considered an unlucky start in life.

January 1st and 25th

February 1st and 26th

March 1st and 28th

April 10th and 20th

May 3rd and 25th

June 10th and 16th

July 13th and 22nd

August 1st and 30th

September 3rd and 21st

October 3rd and 22nd

November 5th and 28th

December 7th and 22nd

As with all these things there were those who dismissed bad luck days as superstitious nonsense, one such was the chronicler William of Newburgh who thought they were nonsense – unless you happened to be Jewish in which case England was to the medieval Jewish community what Egypt had once been which accounted for the murder of the Jewish community in York to to mention associated anti-jewish rioting and it was all down to Egyptian days rather than any unpleasantness by the local population.

As if that wasn’t bad enough there were plenty of medieval calendars that also incorporated dangerous hours. By the fourteenth century not only should you have your blood taken from an auspicious location according to the planets but you also had to watch out which day it was and what the time might be.

Egyptian Days can be found at the top of medieval monthly calendars and marked with a letter “D” for evil days.

SKEMER, DON C. “‘ARMIS GUNFE’: REMEMBERING EGYPTIAN DAYS.” Traditio, vol. 65, 2010, pp. 75–106. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41417991. Accessed 3 Nov. 2020.

Celebrations before 1066 – what the Vikings celebrated

Adam of Bremen – the temple at Uppsala – Olaus Magnus Historia om de nordiska folken. Bok 3 – Kapitel 6 – Om ett härligt tempel helgadt åt de nordiska gudarna. – Utgivningsår 1555.

Prior to adopting Christianity – which was between the eleventh and twelfth centuries (the Swedes were a bit slow to adopt the “White Christ”) -Vikings held a range of seasonal feasts such as Jul in the winter ( Jolnir was one of Odin’s many names) and harvest festivals such as Mabon.

Adam of Bremen describes a festival that took place at Uppsala in Sweden once every nine years at the vernal equinox (the start of Spring) that involved sacrificing nine of every kind of male animal – and yes he does mention human sacrifice.

Major festivals involved feasting for twelve days and for those of you looking for an excuse to get the Christmas decorations out early many Germanic peoples celebrated a form of winter festival that fell somewhere between the middle of November and early January – quick break out the mead! It was King Haakon 1 of Norway who scheduled the winter holiday in the middle of the tenth century to coincide with Christmas, plied everyone with much ale across the celebration and ensured that there was lots of preaching resulting in some festive conversions to Christianity. It wasn’t entirely a smooth transition as the historic painting by Arbo demonstrates. Haakon, a Christian, first had to resist his people’s determination that he should celebrate Jol in the old style with a sacrifice.

Haakon the Good Confronted by the Farmers of Maeren painted by the Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (c. 1831–1892)

Haakon is also known as Haakon the Good. His father was Harold Fairhair. Harold sent Haakon to England where he was raised at the court of King Athelstan and pick dup Christianity along the way. The only problem with all of that is that the earliest written source that alludes to all of this is twelfth century. Haakon’s half brother was Eric Bloodaxe and in order to become king Haakon had to depose Eric which is why Eric ended up in Yorkshire or Jorvik.

But back to the Norse before Christianity – there is evidence to suggest that the midwinter feast was linked to the so-called Wild Hunt which turns up in many European pre-Christian religious beliefs where lost souls are hunted across the night sky. In the North of England the pack of other-worldly hounds that Odin uses for his hunt are called Gabriel hounds and their howling is an omen of death – cheery.

I think I’ll return to the Norse festival of drinking and feasting designed to bring back the sun – and that brings us to those wreaths we hang on our front doors. Really they should be much larger and should be rolled down a hill whilst on fire to encourage the return of the sun… please don’t try it at home.

Other traditions with a Norse flavour include the yule log (which was very clearly not a chocolate confection in its original guise); Yule goats – which we don’t have but Scandinavians do; Old Man Winter; trees and mistletoe balls.

The first of the History Jar Zoom classes on Christmas and the festive season through the centuries begins on Monday 9th November 3pm (Greenwich Meantime.) Please see the Zoom class page for details.

https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/heim/05hakon.htm – for the saga of Haakon the Good.

Homemade remedies – Grandmother’s Embrocation

Turpentine comes from fir trees, I think, and to be honest I tend to think of it in a DIY context rather than a medical care setting. However, today, having watched Bake Off last week and clearly having taken leave of my senses I decided to make a couple of Cornish pasties for lunch – there will be no picture of them and the Bake Off tent is perfectly safe from my attentions.

However, the book I took the recipe from is called Farmhouse Fare and it belonged to my parents. This morning I looked at it rather more closely. It was printed in 1937 by The Farmers’ Weekly based on recipes sent by readers – or “Country Housewives” as it says on the front cover. It sold out but then the war came along and it wasn’t printed again until 1946 but there was still a shortage of paper so the print run wasn’t very long. My copy dates from the 1950s.

As I sat with my cup of tea I flicked through it’s pages and came to a section marked “For Your Corner Cupboard,” given that I have been writing about medieval remedies I thought I would have a look to see what the twentieth century had to offer and voila Grandmother’s embrocation which I do not recommend you try at home – really don’t even go there: 1/2 pint turpentine and 1 egg shaken up until it turns to a cream. Then add 1 pint of vinegar (slowly) and a small tablespoon of liquid ammonia – apparently it keeps for years!

Apparently turpentine was recommended in 1865 to remove worms – clearly it’s something that has bothered people down the centuries making me glad to be alive now rather than then despite the fact that most of us haven’t ventured very far this year.

In this case the embrocation, which is rubbed on before anyone gets too carried away, is designed to relieve the pain of rheumatism and arthritis not to mention aching limbs and sprains. Given that ammonia is caustic I can only assume that the heat generated by the above concoction would take your mind off most things – demonstrating that it wasn’t just during the medieval period that people applied some very strange concoctions to themselves in the hope of feeling a bit better.

Right – time for a quick time for a quick burst of George Formby’s song – Auntie Maggie’s homemade remedy I think. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrSM99xZX-E

And aren’t we all grateful for the National Health Service that made homemade embrocations a thing of the past? And with that in mind if you haven’t seen the Ruth Jones edition of Who DO You Think You, it’s definitely one to watch if you’re interested in the evolution of the National Health Service.

Royal Forests in medieval England

Forest comes from the Latin word meaning outdoors – so medieval forests included woods, heaths, wasteland and all manner of open spaces. Their aim was to protect the beasts which the king hunted – deer and boar amongst others. The rules of vert and venison were designed for the protection of habitat, animal and ease of the hunt.

By 1086 there were in the region of 25 royal forests. The Anglo Saxon Chronicle contains many bitter complaints on the matter. At one point during the thirteenth century it’s estimated that a quarter of the country was designated royal forest which meant that it fell under forest law which was an arbitrary system based on the king rather than common law and its precedents.

Now I know that there is still a words, words, words challenge ongoing but it seems to me that this has real potential – so here is an unexpected History Jar challenge – how many of the medieval royal forests can you name?

Forest Law- the courts

Royal Forests in medieval times  were overseen and administered by keepers who were appointed by the monarch and also by justices who applied Forest Law. There were two justices- one for the forests north of the River Trent and one for the forests south of the river. The laws that applied in the king’s woods were different to the common law applied elsewhere in the kingdom. The laws in the forest were what the king decided that they should be.

The laws were essentially to protect the animals that lived in these areas under forest law – and they weren’t all wooded – heaths and moors were also encompassed by forest law. The laws also prevented things like fencing and hedging which would have hampered the king from hunting. Eventually an accommodation of some kind was established for the people who lived in areas designated Royal Forest leading to commoners rights. These were documented in 1215 with Magna Carta when King John found himself at odds with his barons. The Charter of the Forest was signed in November 1217.

Woodmote – this is more properly a court of attachment. It was held every forty days. The judges were the wardens/keepers and their deputies and sometimes verderers. This court decided whether the people charged with breaking forest law should go to a higher court – the swainmote.

Swainmote – this court met three times a year. It tried cases where people had broken the rules about putting fields int he forest or grazing their livestock at times and in quantities that they shouldn’t. The swain element was the jury of freemen that sat once a year before the Feast of St John the Baptist.

Court of Regard – every three years officials called retarders checked that dogs living in the area under forest law had been declawed. This declaring is often called “lawing.” Regarders also dealt with instances of trespass.

The Eyre Essentially an eyre is a circuit court presided over by the king’s justices. It was held approximately once every five years after a notice of forty days was given.

Jane Mosley’s remedies, cuttlefish and Galen

Image of peony from Gerard’s herbal

Jane Mosley lived in Brailsford, Derbyshire during the seventeenth century. The record office has her personal books of recipes and remedies.

She was probably born in the summer of 1669. The family had links with London as well as being an established Derbyshire family. In 1697 she married Edward Soresby of Darley. The couple went on to have eight children before Jane died in 1712. The county archives contains letters, accounts and land transactions as well as family wills.

Amongst her remedies is a cure for the falling sickness, or epilepsy as we would recognise it today. Peony roots grated and drunk and worn around the neck – Jane spells it pionie and it turns up elsewhere as danpi. It will probably come as no surprise to discover that Galen, the Roman physician, recommended peonies as a cure for falling sickness. So all though it features in Jane’s book it would have been something understood in the medieval period as well. Anyone with seizures would likely be prescribed a drink containing peony roots and required to wear it around their neck as a talisman. The remedy can also be found in Gerard’s Herbal.

There are several toothpaste recipes, the most straightforward of which involves salt and cuttle bone – ground up cuttlefish bone was also used as a polishing powder by goldsmiths. A second recipe involved rosemary and harts horn as well as cuttlefish. She also knew of a mouthwash to make teeth “steadfast.” The rinse involved vervain roots in cold wine.

Derbyshire Museum Service. 1979. Jane Mosley’s Derbyshire Recipes

Tigers in medieval England

tiger from the Northumberland Bestiary 1250-60

I was looking at the award winning photograph of the Amur tiger a couple of nights ago and that got me wondering about medieval depictions. The Amur used to be Siberian but the new name Amur reflects their decreased territories. This led me to looking at bestiaries with their strange mix of fact and fantasy. The fantastic animals, unicorns and manticores and suchlike, existed as part of culture and as with so much in the medieval world they became a tool to provide an insight into morality. And of course God created all the animals so their study was yet another way for mankind to get a bit closer to understanding God, the Cosmos and mankind’s place within it.

I’m not sure why the tiger was blue. Come to think of it I’m not totally sure why the tiger has spots rather than stripes other than because Isidore of Seville wrote that this was the case.

The illustration is based on a story by Pliny – so for those of the History Jar readers who have ventured into the medieval world of this autumn’s Zoom classes there is a neat rehearsal of a familiar pattern. We know for example that Pliny’s story appeared in Latin format and ultimately a French text before crossing The Channel. The knowledge of the Greeks arrives in medieval hands by circuitous routes. A key text in the evolution of bestiaries is the bestiary of Isidore of Seville who wrote in the seventh century – so back to one of those transition points for information to move from the Arab to the Frankish world.

The hunter in the story is attempting to steal tiger cubs. He makes his get away by dropping one cub at a time to distract the irate parent. In medieval minds tigers were very fast moving animals and dangerous if angry. (again thanks to Pliny) In the thirteenth century an additional element crept into the story when the story teller arranged for the hunter to drop something shiny so that the mother seeing her own reflection believed it to be her cub – clearly not aware of the sensitive olfactory moggy snout! Clearly the hunter gets away, either because the mother tiger is busy looking after her abandoned cubs or licking her own face in a mirror of some description.

The Northumberland Bestiary is in the hands of the Getty Museum https: //www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/240115/unknown-maker-northumberland-bestiary-english-about-1250-1260/. Unsurprisingly given it’s origins it was originally owned by the Duke of Northumberland. It contains 112 illustrations.

As you might expect the British Library is the home for many medieval bestiaries:


Sergey Gorshkov’s winning photograph of the Amur Tiger. I should note that medieval writers were thinking about the Asian tiger and would sometimes note that the River Tigris was named for the tiger.

The Embrace by Sergey Gorshkov, Russia   –   Copyright  © Sergey Gorshkov/Wildlife Photographer of the Year 2020 https://www.euronews.com/living/2020/10/16/wildlife-photography-awards-offer-a-rare-glimpse-of-siberian-tigers