Cardinal Wolsey suppressed 29 monasteries with the permission of the Pope to fund Ipswich College and Cardinal College in Oxford which became King Henry VIII college and then Christchurch College. It was founded in the grounds of one of the suppressed monasteries (St Frideswide’s). The monastic foundations Wolsey suppressed totaled an income of £1800 and were generally very small.
October 9: Cardinal Wolsey falls from power due to his failure to secure a divorce for his master from Katherine of Aragon. He is arrested on a charge of praemunire. Praemunire involves taking orders from foreign powers rather than the king. Being a cardinal means that it was inevitable that Wolsey could face this charge.
January: Wolsey falls ill and is attended by Henry’s doctor. Wolsey does not give up hope of being reinstated to Henry’s favour.
November 4: Wolsey is arrested. He cannot help dabbling in politics and has sent some injudicious letters to Rome. Thomas Cromwell speaks on Wolsey’s behalf in Parliament.
November 29: Cardinal Wolsey dies in Leicester on his way back to London from York. Edward Hall hints at suicide in his account of Wolsey’s last days but it was most likely a bowel infection. He was certainly on his way back to the Tower and execution.
January 15: Commons Supplication Against the Ordinaries also known as the Submission of the Clergy.
What this means is that the king and his ministers are now able to review all Church, or canon, law. They could prevent the enforcement of any canon law they wished and they could veto the passage of any new Church law if they were so disposed. Sir Thomas More resigns from the Chancellorship as a consequence of the passage of this act.
Act Restraining Payments of Annates – An annate was a tax levied on newly appointed clergy and payable to the pope (usually half or a whole year’s income – annates are also known as first fruits). Parliament withholds the payments of annates from Rome but gives Henry the option of allowing them to continue. This is effectively a form of blackmail in an attempt to get Henry his divorce from Katherine of Aragon. The act also states that the Pope cannot delay consecration of bishops or excommunicate Englishmen in retaliation for the withholding of the annates.
Augustinan Canons of Holy Trinity, Christchurch in London surrender to the king because they are overwhelmed by debt. An Act of Parliament recognises the Crown as Holy Trinity’s founder which means that no one else has any claim to the land or property that has been surrendered to the king.
March: Act in Restraint of Appeals 1532. This act was somewhat confusingly passed in 1533.It means that the highest authority legally speaking in England is the King because Parliament doesn’t recognise any higher authority. “This realm of England is an Empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one Supreme Head and King having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial Crown of the same.” Katherine of Aragon can no longer make an appeal to Rome against an English court’s decision.
This year is a busy year for Parliament.
- The Act of Dispensations – All payments to Rome are now stopped. Licenses and dispensations previously attainable through the Church are now being administered by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
- An act is passed which Monks forbidden to travel outside the country on official business
- Act for the Submission of the Clergy, 1534
- Act in Absolute Restraint of Annates. Payment of all annates to Rome are now forbidden and Engishmen are forbidden to obtain papal bulls for the consecration of bishops. Instead, the King nominates and Archbishop consecrates bishops. In some respects England has always been an anomaly in this regard. The Crowns right to nominate archbishops was one of the reasons Henry II fell out with Thomas Becket.
- The Act of First Fruits and Tenths. First fruits is another name for the first year’s income from a benefice. Every year thereafter the tax was a tenth of the incumbent’s income. This is still collected but now it makes its way into the King’s coffers rather than to Rome.
- The First Succession Act – Succession is vested in heirs of Henry and Anne (Princess Elizabeth and hopefully a male heir). This is the act which bastardises Princess Mary.
- Act of Supremacy King Henry VIII is declared to be Supreme Head of the English Church.
- Treason Act
- Act Extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome – which deals with a loop hole that the other acts haven’t covered.
January: Cromwell is made Viceregerant. He orders a national visitation of all monastic houses. This leads to the Comperta or ‘Black Book’ which lists all monastic transgressions. Monastic transgressions are also enumerated in the letters that Cromwell’s visitors sent to him and in the various acts of parliament that followed. The other text, the Valor Ecclesiasticus identifies the worth of the monastic houses– 80% of monastic houses are registered in the Valor. Half the monasteries had less than £200 p.a. The net annual income of the Church is valued at £320,000. The king only receives £40,000.
September 18: In Yorkshire in 1534 and 1535 Archbishop Lee of York, who signed the Act of Supremacy and who is keen on the Bible in English begins to make a visitation of the monasteries in his diocese. His visitation is eventually halted on this day on the orders of Cromwell. He visited 8 Yorkshire foundations of which 5 were nunneries.
March: Act of Suppression of the Smaller Monasteries – All monastic houses with fewer than 12 monks or nuns or less than £200 p.a. are suppressed on the grounds that these establishments were centres of “manifest sin, vicious, carnal and abominable living.”
Many abbeys had already been coerced into surrendering during the visitation of 1535 but now the smaller abbeys of England were forced to close. Their number includes:
Abbey Dore- Hereford and Worcester; Beeliegh, St Botolph (Colchester), Little Dunmow, Prittlewell and Tilty in Essex; Birkenhead, Jarrow and Monkwearmouth; Bisham and Hurley in Berkshire; Blyth and Rufford in Nottinghamshire; Bourne and Tupholme in Lincolnshire; Boxgrove, Easebourne, Michelham and Shulbred in Sussex; Brinkburn in Northumberland; Broomholm, Horsham, Ingham and Langley in Norfolk; Bungay and Sibton in Suffolk; Bushmead in Bedford, Canons Ashby in Northampton; Cartmel in modern Cumbria but I think Tudor Lancashire; Chirbury in Shropshire; Coverham and Nun Monkton in Yorkshire; Dorchester in Oxfordshire; St Radegund’s in Dover, Minster-in-Sheppey and Monks Horton in Kent; Upholland in Lancashire; Exeter St Nicholas and Frithelstock in Devon; St Oswald’s in Gloucester; Maxstoke, Pinley and Stoneleigh in Warwick; Mottisfont in Hampshire; Norton in Cheshire; Owston in Leicestershire; Quarr on the Isle of Wight; Waverley in Surrey.
In Wales the following abbeys were suppressed: Cwmhir,Beddgelert, Caldy, Chepstow,Haverfordwest,Llantarnam,Margam,Penmon, Pill, Talley and Usk.
The Court of Augmentations is set up to take control of the confiscated property and monastic loot. This covers the sale of everything from the lead on the roof to the floor tiles as well as the collection of holy relics and sale of all the plate and any other valuables.
October 3: Pilgrimage of Grace begins in Lincolnshire. It is led by Robert Aske. The Pilgrims march under the banner of the five wounds of Christ. They wish for a return of the monasteries and of Catholicism. They’re not terribly impressed by the rent hikes made by some of the new landowners who have taken over the suppressed monasteries. Cromwell and other ‘bad advisors’ are blamed for Henry’s policies.
October 9: The Pilgrimage spreads to the East Riding of Yorkshire and by the end of the week it has crossed the Pennines. Unrest sprouts in Westmorland and Cumberland.
October 12: Sawley Abbey which was suppressed in the spring of 1536 is restored.
December: Duke of Norfolk partially accepted the demands of the rebels including the promise of a parliament in York – pardon given providing there was no more rebellion.
January 16 Sir Francis Bigod leads new uprising which effectively nullifies the terms of Norfolk’s December agreement. In total about 200 men executed including Robert Aske who has taken no part in the 1537 uprising.
March: Abbot Paslew and two of his monks are executed at the gates of Wally Abbey for their part in the Pilgrimage of Grace following trial at Lancaster. The remaining 13 monks are kicked out of their home with no pension as Walley is forcibly suppressed.
April 9: Furness Abbey surrenders.
Easby Abbey near Richmond is suppressed. It had 18 monks including the abbot. Jervaulx is also suppressed. Their abbot, having been involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace, is hauled off to London where he is executed at Tyburn. In Cumberland, Lanercost Priory surrenders.
Jan-Sept: 38 large monasteries voluntarily surrender.
Visitation of the friaries now begins but it is discovered that many friars have already taken themselves abroad.
November 21: Monk Bretton Priory in South Yorkshire surrenders. Some of the monks band together, buy 148 books from the library and continue to live a communal life at Worsborough. They were still a community in 1558.
November 30: Byland Abbey surrenders.
An act of Parliament hands all the monastic land already surrendered or suppressed into the hands of the Crown.
November 22: Kirkstall Abbey near Leeds surrenders. There are 31 monks.
December 14: Whitby Abbey surrenders.
December 24: Guisborough Priory signs the deed of surrender. Hailes Abbey in Gloucestershire surrenders on the same day.
Fountains Abbey also surrenders in 1539. It is pictured at the start of this post. Double click on it for an outline history of Fountains Abbey.
January 5: Egglestone Abbey near Barnard Castle is dissolved.
January 6: Henry marries Anne of Cleves
January 9: Carlisle Priory surrenders. The cathedral will be reconstituted in May 1541 along with Chester Cathedral.
January 29: Bolton Abbey surrenders. In addition to the prior there are 14 canons. The church becomes the parish church.
March 23: Waltham Abbey surrenders. It is the last monastery in England.
April 3: Guisborough Priory is formally dissolved.
June 10: Thomas Cromwell arrested at a council meeting.
July 28: Cromwell executed.