This week, there was no quiz last week, I’m giving you a picture of the whole thing. What is it’s purpose – and it’s not for that bunch of flowers you’ve picked from the garden!
Charles I wore this shirt on the 30th January 1649. It is made from knitted silk and he asked for it to prevent him from shivering. He did not want people to think that he was afraid to go to his execution.
This week and next week will be the last history challenges until September – based on the fact I need to come up with some new challenges. I shall continue with the picture quiz and there will as, British rail would say, be a replacement service along shortly.
This week I should like you to identify as many famous bishops, archbishops and cardinals as you can you have been associated with governing England from 1066 until 1745 which are completely arbitrary cut off dates but a frame is something that I have discovered to be very useful unless you want a cast of hundreds.
For a complete list of popes in reverse order please follow this link:
There are, it turns out, rather a lot of them – 265 at current count.
The first pope was St Peter and he was, of course, crucified upside down. The next 31 popes were also martyrs and saints.
My first encounter with English History that involved a pope was the tale of St Gregory the Great. Gregory I began his papacy in Ad 590 and died in 604. He’s the pope who say Angle slaves in the market and said that they looked more like angels, on the back of which he set about reintroducing Roman Christianity into England. In 596 he sent St Augustine to Kent.
King Alfred the great was four when he went with his father to Rome in 853. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported that the future king was confirmed by Pope Leo IV. Alfred returned to Rome two years later.
In 1066 Pope Alexander II blessed William the Conqueror’s intended invasion of England by declaring it a crusade. England had an unfortunate habit of appointing its own bishops. The pope thought that the papacy ought to hold that particular right. William had already developed his links with the papacy. He had required a papal dispensation in order for his marriage to Matilda of Flanders to be legitimated. Essentially the papacy wished to extend it’s power base outside Rome and Italy. It assumed that William the Conqueror, if he was victorious would tow the line. Unfortunately a later pope – Gregory VII discovered that William was not prepared to become the pontiff’s vassal.
Henry I continued the argument, refusing to allow his bishops to travel to Rome to be invested with their authority.
In 1154, Nicholas Breakspear became Pope Adrian IV — the only English Pope. Usually he is blamed for giving Ireland to Henry II – the papal bull identifying the king as the Lord of Ireland is open to question in terms of authenticity.
Unfortunately for the papacy English kings continued to take the view that they had the right to appoint bishops and abbots to vacant posts. This contention simmered to the surface during the reign of Henry II and resulted in the death of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. Superficially this resulted in the ascendency of the papacy who required Henry to do penance. In reality the king and the pope rubbed along with a series of compromises.
In 1209 Pope Innocent III excommunicated the whole country thanks to the shenanigans of King John after he refused to recognise Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1213 John agreed to pay feudal dues and effectively became the Pope’s vassal …on paper.
In 1378 there were two popes thanks to the Avignon Papacy. Schism resulted in popes and counter popes. You chose the one who would give you want you wanted. This coincided with the Hundred Years War.
From 1529 onward Henry VIII’s minister Thomas Cromwell worked to restrict the pope’s power in a bid to ensure his master’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon. In 1534 the Act of Supremacy was passed which made Henry the head of the Church in England. Pope Clement VII had tried to delay the inevitable but given that he was a prisoner of Catherine of Aragon’s nephew at the time he wasn’t really ever going to give Henry what he wanted.
Fletcher, Stella (2017) The Popes and Britain: A History of Rule, Rupture and ReconciliationHardcover
I think this one might be quite straight forward but I would like to know what it is? Who’s is it? And when it was last used?
This very personal item once belonged to Elizabeth I – hence the E. There is a hinge and a portrait inside the ring. No one knows who the woman is but given the head dress it is not unreasonable to suppose that it’s Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn.
I’ve posted about the ring before https://thehistoryjar.com/tag/the-chequers-ring/ So if you would like to read more follow the link.
Well I very nearly bit off more than I could chew with the French monarchs! And I clearly didn’t cover the restoration of the Bourbons. Scottish monarchs seem like light relief after this week’s exertions.
My challenge for you this week is possibly almost as fiendish – Popes from the beginning of the Eleventh century to the end of the sixteenth century please. It does mean that you will have to deal with the Avignon Papacy from 1309 to 1376 and the resulting Papal Schism when there were two popes at the same time but don’t worry which pope was which – just consider how many you can name.
For a warm up the pope pictured in this post is Pope Clement VII – which part of English history is he closely associated with? And who was the English Pope?
I think this is a tricky challenge – though again I think that some of the students who attend my classes have seen the full size image. This item is kept somewhere associated with the First Lord of the Treasury.
Henry VI was crowned King of France when he was a child. Unfortunately for him the Hundred Years War took a downturn and by the end of his reign the majority of his father’s gains had been lost – the effect of this was to ensure that his wife Margaret of Anjou was deeply unpopular and that Richard of York who was a successful military leader gained political allies when Henry’s chosen general – the Duke of Somerset managed to make a complete mess of things.
I very foolishly didn’t specify a time frame and I know some of my readers are very interested in the Early Medieval Period – or Dark Ages as it was called in that dim and distant time when I went to school. I’d have to say Dark Ages sounds more dramatic but I can see why it’s been changed.
France is named after the Franks who were a Germanic tribe. Clovis I is probably the best known of these kings. There are no prizes for identifying that the French were ruled by many kings called Louis!
Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties (c. 410 to 843)
Chlodio – 428-445
Mervoch 445 (or possibly 448)- 457
Childeric I 457- 481
Clovis I 481-511 – he was effectively the first real king of the Franks with a kingdom that we would recognise, broadly speaking, as France. When he died his kingdom was split between his sons. So Childebert I was king of Paris, Chlothar the Old and Charibert were his brothers and ruled other parts of the kingdom- Neustria and Burgundy- which meant that further down the line the extended family went to war with one another to reunite elements of the kingdom.
Chlothar the Great or the Young to distinguish him from the first Chlothar.
Dagobert I 629-639
Clovis II or the Lazy 639-657
Chlothar III 657-673
Childeric II 673-675. He and the previous king were both sons of Clovis II as was Theudric III who ruled from 675-691.
Clovis IV 691-695
Childrebert III know as the Just ruled from his brother Clovis IV’s death until 711 when he was succeeded by his son Dagobert III the Just, Chilperic II, Theuderic IV and Childeric III a.k.a “The Phantom King,” which sounds like something out of a Marvel comic. He was actually the last Merovingian monarch. By this time the so called “idle kings” had been overshadowed by their mayors of the palace – or household managers.
In 751 a new dynasty took control: The Carolingians
Pepin the Short ruled until 768 when he was succeeded by his son Carloman I and in turn by his brother Charlemagne – Charles the Great who ruled until 814. He successfully united much of western and central Europe.
814–840 King Louis I was not a king of ‘France’. He was also called Louis the Pious. He was the only son of Charlemagne who had been identified as an heir to survive his father. He was forced to abdicated in 833.
840–877 Charles II (the Bald)
877–879 Louis II (the Stammerer)
879–882 Louis III ruled jointly with Carloman.
884–888 Charles the Fat
888–898 Eudes (also Odo) of Paris (non-Carolingian)
898–922 Charles III or the Simple which is a bit unkind as the alternative translation simply means straightforward.
922–923 Robert I (non-Carolingian)
923–936 Raoul (or Rudolf, non-Carolingian)
936–954 Louis IV (d’Outremer or The Foreigner)
954–986 Lothar (Lothaire)
986–987 Louis V the Do-Nothing – which probably says everything that needs to be said.
Hugh Capet is usually considered the first king of France as we would recognise it. But it wasn’t as straightforward as all that – the kingdom of France was centred on Paris – it took time to expand.
- 987–996 Hugh Capet
- 996–1031 Robert II (the Pious)
- 1031–1060 Henry I
- 1060–1108 Philip I
- 1108–1137 Louis VI (the Fat). This particular Louis was a key centraliser and a man who spent a long time fighting the Normans who had made their base in England. Much of the problem stemmed from the fact that Henry I of England having deprived his elder brother Robert Curthose of Normandy also took Gisors which was French.
- 1137–1180 Louis VII (the Young) was first married to Eleanor of Aquitaine but the marriage was annulled and she married Henry II of England.
- 1180–1223 Philip II Augustus
- 1223–1226 Louis VIII (the Lion)
- 1226–1270 Louis IX (St. Louis)
- 1270–1285 Philip III (the Bold)
- 1285–1314 Philip IV (the Fair) was the king who had the Knight’s Templar burned at the stake and who had his daughters-in-law imprisoned following the scandal of the affair of the Tower of Nesle.
- 1314–1316 Louis X (the Stubborn or the Quarrelsome). His reign was short but he allowed serfs to buy their freedom. He had married Margaret of Burgundy ( a cousin) in 1305 but she was involved in the scandal of Nesle and imprisoned for adultery where she died. There was one child from the marriage – Joan who in addition to being a girl was also stigmatised by her mother’s behaviour. Louis married for a second time and had one sone John who inherited the throne in 1316.
- 1316–John I died without a male heir which was unfortunate as under France’s salic law women were prohibited from inheriting. he ruled for less than a week under the regency of his uncle and when he died it ended a centuries old line of fathers handing the crown to their sons. Philip the Tall was Louis X’s brother but his uncle Charles of Valois wanted to rule.
- 1316–1322 Philip V (the Tall)
- 1322–1328 Charles IV (the Fair).
The Valois dynasty as more famous in English History books for their role as England’s adversaries in the Hundred Years War. Henry V married Katherine of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI.
- 1328–1350 Philip VI (the Fortunate) wasn’t really that fortunate because his reign was dominated by who should be king of France.
- 1350–1364 John II (the Good)
- 1364–1380 Charles V (the Wise)
- 1380–1422 Charles VI (the Mad, Well-Beloved, or Foolish) Charles believed that he was made of glass and that he would break if anyone touched him.
- 1422–1461 Charles VII (the Well-Served or Victorious)
- 1461–1483 Louis XI (the Spider)
- 1483–1498 Charles VIII (Father of his People)
- 1498–1515 Louis XII
- 1515–1547 Francis I who was of an age with Henry VIII.
- 1547–1559 Henry II
- 1559–1560 Francis II was Mary Queen of Scots’ first spouse.
- 1560–1574 Charles IX
- 1574–1589 Henry III
The Bourbon kings of France included the absolute apogee of a European monarch, the Sun King Louis XIV, and just two people later, the king who would be beheaded by a revolution.
- 1589–1610 Henry IV
- 1610–1643 Louis XIII
- 1643–1715 Louis XIV (the Sun King)
- 1715–1774 Lousie XV
- 1774–1792 Louis XVI who managed to get himself executed along with his wife Marie-Antoinette.
And that is probably more than enough for the time being.
How many of you spotted Cardinal Wolsey’s travelling sundial this week?
This delightful object was created by the German mathematician Nicolaus Kratzer in 1522. He came to England in about 1518 and was astronomer to King Henry VIII. The base has Wolsey’s coat of arms on one side, the arms of York Minster – he was it’s archbishop form 1514 onwards- on the other and on the two smaller sides there’s a cardinal’s hat.
The sundial is polyhedral – basically it tells the time in a number of different ways depending on which side you’re using. And yes it is completely covered in gold. Aside from being a very busy man who needed to get to his meetings on time Wolsey was also demonstrating that he was a cultured and learned chap. Or put another way he liked beautiful and complicated things and if you were really lucky you might be invited to take a closer look if you visited him – so a conversation piece as well.
Holbein depicted Kratzer holding a sundial and there’s a polyhedral sundial in his picture of the Ambassadors which can be seen in the National Gallery.
For a happy half hour finding out more about the importance of mathematical objects including sundials visit the National Gallery page below to explore the Ambassadors by Hans Holbein.